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Orthotic prosthetic technique

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Orthotic prosthetic technique

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[Abstract]:
Orthotic prosthetic technique
With the extension of human life and the development of clinical medicine and rehabilitation medicine, the technical requirements of orthotic prosthetic devices are higher and higher.Orthotic prosthetic devices are a part of rehabilitation medicine and rehabilitation engineering. The assembly of prosthetic devices needs more team cooperation composed of patients, clinicians, prosthetic orthotists and rehabilitation engineers. Only in this way can the development and application of prostheses continue to develop and improve.

With the extension of human life and the development of clinical medicine and rehabilitation medicine, the technical requirements of orthotic prosthetic devices are higher and higher.Orthotic prosthetic devices are a part of rehabilitation medicine and rehabilitation engineering. The assembly of prosthetic devices needs more team cooperation composed of patients, clinicians, prosthetic orthotists and rehabilitation engineers. Only in this way can the development and application of prostheses continue to develop and improve.

1. Function of prostheses and orthotics

Orthotics is a kind of external support device for the purpose of reducing the dysfunction of the skeletal and muscular system of limbs and spine, which mainly has the following basic functions. First, to stabilize and support: to stabilize the joint and restore its load-bearing function by limiting the abnormal movement of the joint, such as the knee ankle foot orthosis used by the patients with spinal cord injury and lower limb muscle paralysis, to stabilize the knee ankle joint for the convenience of standing and walking; second, to fix and protect: to promote the recovery of the disease through the fixation and protection of the diseased limbs or joints, such as the treatment of various fractures Orthopedic appliance; third, prevention and correction of deformity: it is mainly used for the bone and joint deformity caused by muscular imbalance or static force, such as congenital talipes equinovarus, which is mainly used for prevention and mostly used for children. Because of the biological plasticity of bone and joint growth in children's growth and development stage, it can obtain certain orthopedic effect; fourth, reducing axial load: it means reducing the long axis of limbs or trunk Load bearing, such as ischial load-bearing orthoses, is used to treat aseptic necrosis of the femoral head; fifthly, to inhibit muscle reflex spasm in standing and walking

For example, the rigid ankle foot plastic orthotics can prevent the spastic equinovarus in walking and improve the walking function of the patients with spinal cord injury; sixth, the improved function: it refers to the wrist hand orthotics which can improve the walking, eating and other daily life and work ability of the patients, such as helping the patients with the deformity of the assistant department to improve the holding function.

2. Characteristics of prosthetics and orthotics

2.1. Diversity and specificity

The prostheses and orthotics are different from the general devices, which are the auxiliary devices to wear on the human body. They need to meet the needs of the psychological, pathological and medical principles of the disabled. Orthopedic appliance is for the physiological and pathological requirements of patients with dysfunction to carry out auxiliary treatment, which needs more guidance from clinicians and rehabilitation workers. A very complex body, each patient after amputation or disability, because the human body has its own special physical condition, so the prosthesis and orthopedic appliance should be different from each other.

2.2. Dominance

It is the main task of prosthetics and orthotics technology to use engineering methods and means to recover the disabled and promote their functional recovery, reconstruction or compensation. It is necessary, sometimes even the only rehabilitation method, to use the technique of prosthesis and orthosis for the injured. However, patients mainly rely on clinicians to propose further treatment and rehabilitation planning, clinicians play a leading role. Prosthetics and orthotics also need physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy. Therefore, the technology of prostheses and orthotics plays an important role in rehabilitation medicine and plays an irreplaceable role.

2.3. Practicability

Guided by the theories of medicine, engineering, biomechanics, polymer chemistry, electronics, materials science and computer technology, the technology of prosthetics and orthotics works closely with clinicians, rehabilitation workers, patients and patients' families to help the disabled to maximize their potential and recover their independent life, study, work and return to society by means of various technologies The science of ability. Its products, prostheses and orthotics, are auxiliary devices made for patients with specific disability or dysfunction, with specific practicality.

3. Current situation of orthotics in China

According to the statistics of the National Family Planning Commission, the aging rate of our population is accelerating, and the incidence rate of various injuries caused by traffic accidents, work-related injuries and sports injuries has been increasing year by year. The majority of bone injuries need to help patients recover as soon as possible with the help of orthopedic fixation and correction, which brings space for the development of domestic orthopedic market.

Due to the limitation of technology and talents, China's orthopedic industry is backward in development and limited in scale. Most of the enterprises are low-end products, and the technology content is not high. Especially in the large-scale application of new raw materials, compared with the developed countries, the gap is still large, and the limited production capacity brings about the shortage of output. Facing the huge demand of the domestic consumer market, there is obviously a "shortage of supply" ”Status quo.

Under the current situation that the domestic market is "in short supply", foreign well-known brand manufacturers look forward to the huge development opportunities in the domestic market, and have settled in China, set up branches, cultivate agent manufacturers, participate in bidding and other modes to expand the domestic market share. At present, the domestic orthopedic market is almost divided by foreign well-known imported brands, and most of the domestic market shares are controlled by several well-known brands. The entry of foreign manufacturers poses a threat to the survival of domestic enterprises, but to a certain extent, it makes up for the domestic market demand that domestic manufacturers can not meet, which is conducive to improving the competitiveness of domestic orthopedic enterprises.

4. Future development trend of orthotics

In the future, the development trend of orthopedic technology will be intelligent, man-machine integration and bionic control. Intellectualization combines traditional products with computer technology to form Mechatronics or artificial intelligence products; human-machine integration applies biomaterial technology to human body rehabilitation to form "human-machine integration" products; and bionic control designs some devices according to the plasticity of human body function to promote the function recovery