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About upper limb prosthesis
The upper limb prosthesis is a kind of in vitro auxiliary equipment used after the upper limb defect. It can compensate the damaged limb and part of the function of the upper limb. Through some functions provided by the prosthesis, we can do some simple work to help the disabled live, study and work better, restore their self-confidence, and enable them to integrate into society faster and better.
The upper limb prostheses can be divided into myoelectric prosthesis, cosmetic prosthesis and mechanical prosthesis. The amputation parts can be divided into upper arm prosthesis, forearm prosthesis and metacarpal joint prosthesis.
The prosthetic hand is a coordinated action of the user's own disabled and healthy limbs, which drives the traction rope, controls and controls the opening and holding of the prosthetic hand, and realizes the action of grasping and extracting objects. This kind of prosthetic hand is mainly suitable for the disabled of forearm and upper arm. Because of its simple structure, reliable performance, easy to master, convenient use and low price, it is widely used in China. The prosthesis is suitable for the patients with forearm or even full arm defect. It is a variety of labor tools and living appliances, such as hammer, screwdriver, screwdriver, multi-purpose hook and other labor tools, toothbrush, spoon and other living appliances.
Hand is the most characteristic organ of human body. Human hand is the most perfect tool that nature can create. At the same time, the rehabilitation of hand amputation is also the most difficult problem in the field of prosthetic rehabilitation. Because the function of hand is obviously superior to that of lower limbs. Human fingers are very sensitive and can feel the vibration with amplitude of only 0.00002 mm. However, it is a long way to achieve this effect in prosthetic rehabilitation. With the development of science and technology, the rehabilitation of hand amputees is also improved. At present, there are two main rehabilitation programs, decorative and functional. So, how can the patients who install this kind of prosthesis use the prosthesis hand flexibly?
1) Generally, as long as the cavity of the residual limb is suitable, the suspension device is no problem, and no training is needed, but for the first time, the wearer should learn to wear the method, passively rotate the wrist and passively change the position of the fingers. For upper arm amputees, we should learn to use the passive elbow lock.
2) Cable controlled upper limb prosthesis and electric upper limb prosthesis (including EMG prosthesis) are all functional prostheses. The difference is that the former is self powered while the latter is external powered. In order to improve the use function of these artificial hands, we need correct guidance and training.
1. Prosthetic training
When wearing, the residual limb first enters the access cavity, then the artificial limb is connected to the shoulder belt, and the order of disengaging is the opposite.
2. Prosthesis manipulation training
Open and close hand training: cable controlled prosthesis open hand is to bend forward with the strength of the shoulders, when not using force, the prosthesis is closed by elasticity. The upper arm cable control artificial hand must lock the elbow joint in order to start. Forearm EMG prosthetic hand is often used by amputees to do phantom limb movement, to stretch the wrist to control the opening of the hand, to bend the fingers, and to bend the wrist to control the closing of the hand.
(3) Prosthetic training: the function of the hand is a complex sensory feedback, muscle coordination process. If the function of artificial hand is really required to have practical value, it must be carefully used and trained.
What should be paid attention to after installing the upper limb prosthesis
For example, those with long residual limbs should actively exercise the residual forearm pronation and supination function after amputation so as to recover later. At the same time, the functional prosthesis was installed. The shoulder belt and traction line on the other side of the shoulder belt can control the opening and closing of the artificial hand, which has better functions, but the length of the whole upper limb may be slightly longer than that of the healthy side.